This is not a comprehensive account of every scientific paper that contributed to the facts and ideas contained within Sort Your Brain Out. Far from it. Instead it comprises a selection of key papers - tips of icebergs that represent a wealth of mostly recently accumulated scientific evidence speaking to the topics outlined in the book. Wherever access to a specific research paper has been made available for free a clickable link has been provided; should you be curious to explore in greater depth.


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Basak C et al (2008) Can training in real-time strategy video game attenuate cognitive decline in older adults? Psychol Aging 23: 765-777.

Bergman NS et al (2011) Gains in fluid intelligence after training non-verbal reasoning in 4-year-old children: A controlled, randomized study. Dev Sci 14: 591-601.

Borella E et al (2010) Working memory training in older adults: Evidence of transfer and maintenance effects. Psychol Aging 25:767-778.

Boyke J et al (2008) Training-induced brain structure changes in the elderly. J Neurosci 28:7031–7035.

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Burgess N et al (2002) The human hippocampus and spatial and episodic memory. Neuron 35:625–641.

Cain MS, Mitroff SR (2011) Distractor filtering in media multitaskers. Perception 40:1183-1192.

Carretti B et al (2013) Gains in language comprehension relating to working memory training in healthy older adults. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 28: 539-546.

Ceccarelli A et al (2009) Cognitive learning is associated with gray matter changes in healthy human individuals: a tensor-based morphometry study Neuroimage 48:585–589.

Cone RD et al (2001) The arcuate nucleus as a conduit for diverse signals relevant to energy homeostasis. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord Suppl 5:S63-67.

Cryan JF, Dinan TG (2012) Mind-altering microorganisms: the impact of the gut microbiota on brain and behaviour. Nat Rev Neurosci 13:701-712.

De Araujo IE et al (2005) Cognitive modulation of olfactory processing. Neuron 46: 671-679.

De Graaf C et al (2004) Biomarkers of satiation and satiety. Am J Clin Nutr 79:946-961.

Di Francesco V et al (2006) Unbalanced serum leptin and ghrelin dynamics prolong postprandial satiety and inhibit hunger in healthy elderly: another reason for the "anorexia of aging" Am J Clin Nutr 83:1149-1152.

Draganski B et al (2004) Neuroplasticity: changes in grey matter induced by training. Nature 427:311–312.

Driemeyer J et al (2008) Changes in gray matter induced by learning - revisited. PLoS One. 3:e2669.

Eckelinen M et al (2009) Midlife coffee and tea drinking and the risk of late- life dementia: A population-based CAIDE study. J Alz Dis 16:85-91.

Elliott R et al (2008) Medial orbitofrontal cortex codes relative rather than absolute value of financial rewards in humans. Eur J Neurosci 27:2213-2218.

Erickson KI et al (2003) Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory. PNAS 108:3017–3022.

Forsythe P et al (2012) On communication between gut microbes and the brain. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 28:557-562.

Fredholm et al (1999) Actions of caffeine in the brain with special reference to factors that contribute to its widespread use. Pharmacol Rev 51:83-133.

Gaser C, Schlaug G (2003) Gray matter differences between musicians and nonmusicians. Ann NY Acad Sci 999:514–517.

Gentili R et al (2010) Motor learning without doing: trial-by-trial improvement in motor performance during mental training. J Neurophysiol 104:774-783.

Gottfried JA et al (2003) Encoding predictive reward value in human amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex. Science 301:1104-1107.

Grahn JA (2009) The role of the basal ganglia in beat perception: neuroimaging and neuropsychological investigations. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1169:35-45.

Grahn JA, Rowe JB (2009) Feeling the beat: premotor and striatal interactions in musicians and nonmusicians during beat perception. J Neurosci 29:7540-7548.

Greenberg JA, Geliebter A (2012) Coffee, hunger, and peptide YY. J Am Coll Nutr 31:160-166.

Grodstein F et al (2007) A randomized trial of beta-carotene supplementation and cognitive function in men: the Physicians’ Health Study II. Arch Intern Med 167:2184–2190.

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Holmes J et al (2009) Adaptive training leads to sustained enhancement of poor working memory in children. Dev Sci 12:F9-15.

Hüfner K (2011) Structural and functional plasticity of the hippocampal formation in professional dancers and slackliners. Hippocampus 21:855–865.

Hyde KL et al (2009) Musical training shapes structural brain development. J Neurosci 29:3019–3025.

Jackson PL et al (2003) Functional cerebral reorganization following motor sequence learning through mental practice with motor imagery. Neuroimage 20:1171-1180.

Jaeggi SM et al (2008) Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory. PNAS 105: 6829-6833.

Jaeggi SM et al (2010) The relationship between n-back performance and matrix reasoning – implications for training and transfer. Intelligence 38:625-635.

Janusovec N, Janusovec K (2012) Working memory training: Improving intelligence – changing brain activity. Brain Cogn 79:96-106.

Kanai et al (2011) Political orientations are correlated with brain structure in young adults. Curr Biol 21:677–680.

Kanai et al (2012) Online social network size is reflected in human brain structure. Proc Biol Sci. 279:1327-34.

Kanwisher N et al (1997) The fusiform face area: a module in human extrastriate cortex specialized for face perception. J Neurosci 17:4302-4311.

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Keen-Rhinehart E et al (2013) Neuroendocrine regulation of appetitive ingestive behaviour. Front Neurosci 7:213.

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Klusmann V et al (2010) Complex mental and physical activity in older women and cognitive performance: A 6-month randomised controlled trial. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 65:680-688.

Köhnke R et al (2009) Thylakoids promote release of the satiety hormone cholecystokinin while reducing insulin in healthy humans. Scand J Gastroenterol 44:712-719.

Kundu B et al (2013) Strengthened effective connectivity underlies transfer of working memory training to tests of short-term memory and attention. J Neurosci 33:8705-8715.

Lacourse MG et al (2004) Cerebral and cerebellar sensorimotor plasticity following motor imagery-based mental practice of a sequential movement. J Rehabil Res Dev 41:505-24.

Lazarus et al (2011) Arousal effect of caffeine depends on adenosine A2A receptors in the shell of the nucleus accumbens. J Neurosci 31:10067-10075.

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Maguire EA et al (2006) London taxi drivers and bus drivers: a structural MRI and neuropsychological analysis. Hippocampus 16:1091–1101.

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