This is not a comprehensive account of every scientific paper that contributed to the facts and ideas contained within Sort Your Brain Out. Far from it. Instead it comprises a selection of key papers - tips of icebergs that represent a wealth of mostly recently accumulated scientific evidence speaking to the topics outlined in the book. Wherever access to a specific research paper has been made available for free a clickable link has been provided; should you be curious to explore in greater depth.
Anderson S et al (2013) Reversal of age-related neural timing delays with training. PNAS 110(11):4357-4362.
Angevaren M et al (2008) Physical activity and enhanced fitness to improve cognitive function in older people without known cognitive impairment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 3:CD005381.
Arendash GW, Cao C (2010) Caffeine and coffee as therapeutics against Alzheimer's disease. J Alz Dis 20 Suppl 1:S117-126.
Ball K et al (2002) Effects of cognitive training interventions with older adults: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 288:2271-2281.
Basak C et al (2008) Can training in real-time strategy video game attenuate cognitive decline in older adults? Psychol Aging 23: 765-777.
Bergman NS et al (2011) Gains in fluid intelligence after training non-verbal reasoning in 4-year-old children: A controlled, randomized study. Dev Sci 14: 591-601.
Borella E et al (2010) Working memory training in older adults: Evidence of transfer and maintenance effects. Psychol Aging 25:767-778.
Boyke J et al (2008) Training-induced brain structure changes in the elderly. J Neurosci 28:7031–7035.
Blundell JE et al (2001) Regulation of appetite: role of leptin in signalling systems for drive and satiety. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 25 Suppl 1:S29-34.
Burgess N et al (2002) The human hippocampus and spatial and episodic memory. Neuron 35:625–641.
Cain MS, Mitroff SR (2011) Distractor filtering in media multitaskers. Perception 40:1183-1192.
Carretti B et al (2013) Gains in language comprehension relating to working memory training in healthy older adults. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 28: 539-546.
Ceccarelli A et al (2009) Cognitive learning is associated with gray matter changes in healthy human individuals: a tensor-based morphometry study Neuroimage 48:585–589.
Cone RD et al (2001) The arcuate nucleus as a conduit for diverse signals relevant to energy homeostasis. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord Suppl 5:S63-67.
Cryan JF, Dinan TG (2012) Mind-altering microorganisms: the impact of the gut microbiota on brain and behaviour. Nat Rev Neurosci 13:701-712.
De Araujo IE et al (2005) Cognitive modulation of olfactory processing. Neuron 46: 671-679.
De Graaf C et al (2004) Biomarkers of satiation and satiety. Am J Clin Nutr 79:946-961.
Di Francesco V et al (2006) Unbalanced serum leptin and ghrelin dynamics prolong postprandial satiety and inhibit hunger in healthy elderly: another reason for the "anorexia of aging" Am J Clin Nutr 83:1149-1152.
Draganski B et al (2004) Neuroplasticity: changes in grey matter induced by training. Nature 427:311–312.
Driemeyer J et al (2008) Changes in gray matter induced by learning - revisited. PLoS One. 3:e2669.
Eckelinen M et al (2009) Midlife coffee and tea drinking and the risk of late- life dementia: A population-based CAIDE study. J Alz Dis 16:85-91.
Elliott R et al (2008) Medial orbitofrontal cortex codes relative rather than absolute value of financial rewards in humans. Eur J Neurosci 27:2213-2218.
Erickson KI et al (2003) Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory. PNAS 108:3017–3022.
Forsythe P et al (2012) On communication between gut microbes and the brain. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 28:557-562.
Fredholm et al (1999) Actions of caffeine in the brain with special reference to factors that contribute to its widespread use. Pharmacol Rev 51:83-133.
Gaser C, Schlaug G (2003) Gray matter differences between musicians and nonmusicians. Ann NY Acad Sci 999:514–517.
Gentili R et al (2010) Motor learning without doing: trial-by-trial improvement in motor performance during mental training. J Neurophysiol 104:774-783.
Gottfried JA et al (2003) Encoding predictive reward value in human amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex. Science 301:1104-1107.
Grahn JA (2009) The role of the basal ganglia in beat perception: neuroimaging and neuropsychological investigations. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1169:35-45.
Grahn JA, Rowe JB (2009) Feeling the beat: premotor and striatal interactions in musicians and nonmusicians during beat perception. J Neurosci 29:7540-7548.
Greenberg JA, Geliebter A (2012) Coffee, hunger, and peptide YY. J Am Coll Nutr 31:160-166.
Grodstein F et al (2007) A randomized trial of beta-carotene supplementation and cognitive function in men: the Physicians’ Health Study II. Arch Intern Med 167:2184–2190.
Havel PJ (2004) Update on adipocyte hormones: regulation of energy balance and carbohydrate/lipid metabolism Diabetes 53(suppl):S143–151.
Hawkins HL et al (1992) Aging, exercise, and attention. Psychol Aging 7:643-653.
Holmes J et al (2009) Adaptive training leads to sustained enhancement of poor working memory in children. Dev Sci 12:F9-15.
Hüfner K (2011) Structural and functional plasticity of the hippocampal formation in professional dancers and slackliners. Hippocampus 21:855–865.
Hyde KL et al (2009) Musical training shapes structural brain development. J Neurosci 29:3019–3025.
Jackson PL et al (2003) Functional cerebral reorganization following motor sequence learning through mental practice with motor imagery. Neuroimage 20:1171-1180.
Jaeggi SM et al (2008) Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory. PNAS 105: 6829-6833.
Jaeggi SM et al (2010) The relationship between n-back performance and matrix reasoning – implications for training and transfer. Intelligence 38:625-635.
Janusovec N, Janusovec K (2012) Working memory training: Improving intelligence – changing brain activity. Brain Cogn 79:96-106.
Kanai et al (2011) Political orientations are correlated with brain structure in young adults. Curr Biol 21:677–680.
Kanai et al (2012) Online social network size is reflected in human brain structure. Proc Biol Sci. 279:1327-34.
Kanwisher N et al (1997) The fusiform face area: a module in human extrastriate cortex specialized for face perception. J Neurosci 17:4302-4311.
Karback J, Kray J (2009) How useful is executive control training? Age differences in near and far transfer of task-switching activity. Dev Sci 12: 978-980.
Keen-Rhinehart E et al (2013) Neuroendocrine regulation of appetitive ingestive behaviour. Front Neurosci 7:213.
Klingberg T et al (2002) Training of working memory in children with ADHD. J Clin Exp Neuropsych 24:781-791.
Klusmann V et al (2010) Complex mental and physical activity in older women and cognitive performance: A 6-month randomised controlled trial. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 65:680-688.
Köhnke R et al (2009) Thylakoids promote release of the satiety hormone cholecystokinin while reducing insulin in healthy humans. Scand J Gastroenterol 44:712-719.
Kundu B et al (2013) Strengthened effective connectivity underlies transfer of working memory training to tests of short-term memory and attention. J Neurosci 33:8705-8715.
Lacourse MG et al (2004) Cerebral and cerebellar sensorimotor plasticity following motor imagery-based mental practice of a sequential movement. J Rehabil Res Dev 41:505-24.
Lazarus et al (2011) Arousal effect of caffeine depends on adenosine A2A receptors in the shell of the nucleus accumbens. J Neurosci 31:10067-10075.
Lee IM et al (2005) Vitamin E in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer: the Women’s Health Study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 294:56–65.
Li SC et al (2008) Working memory plasticity in old age: Practice gain, transfer, and maintenance. Psychol Aging 23:731-742.
Lilienthal L et al (2013) Dual n-back training increases the capacity of the focus of attention. Psychon Bull Rev 20:135-141.
Liu J et al (2014) Seeing Jesus in toast: Neural and behavioral correlates of face pareidolia. Cortex 53C:60-77.
Loosli SV et al (2012) Working memory training improves reading processes in typically developing children. Child Neuropsychol 18:62-78.
Maguire EA et al (2000) Navigation-related structural change in the hippocampi of taxi drivers. PNAS 97:4398–4403
Maguire EA et al (2006) London taxi drivers and bus drivers: a structural MRI and neuropsychological analysis. Hippocampus 16:1091–1101.
Maia L, de Mendonça A (2002) Does caffeine intake protect from Alzheimer’s disease? Eur J Neurol 9: 377-382.
Manganas LN et al (2007) Magnetic resonance spectroscopy identifies neural progenitor cells in the live human brain. Science. 318:980–985.
McEwen BS (1999) Stress and hippocampal plasticity. Ann Rev Neurosci 22:105–122.
Mechelli A et al (2004) Neurolinguistics: structural plasticity in the bilingual brain. Nature 431:757.
Miller GA (1956) The magical number sever, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychol Rev 63:81-97.
Minear M, Shah P (2008) Training and transfer effects in task switching. Mem Cognit 36: 1470-1483.
Minear M et al (2013) Working memory, fluid intelligence, and impulsiveness in heavy media multitaskers. Psychon Bull Rev 20:1274-1281.
Moreno S et al (2011) Short-term music training enhances verbal intelligence and executive function. Psychol Sci 22:1425-1433.
Nagamatsu LS et al (2013) Physical activity improves verbal and spatial memory in older adults with probable mild cognitive impairment. Arch Intern Med 172: 666-668.
Nehlig A et al (1992) Caffeine and the central nervous system: mechanisms of action, biochemical, metabolic and psychostimulant effects Brain Res Brain Res Rev 17:139–170.
O'Doherty J et al (2000) Sensory-specific satiety-related olfactory activation of the human orbitofrontal cortex. Neuroreport 11:893-897.
O'Keefe J, Dostrovsky J (1971) The hippocampus as a spatial map. Preliminary evidence from unit activity in the freely-moving rat. Brain Res 34:171–175.
Oh J et al (2013) Auditory imagery modulates frequency-specific areas in the human auditory cortex. J Cogn Neurosci 25:175-187.
Olesen PJ et al (2004) Increased prefrontal and parietal activity after training of working memory. Nat Neurosci 7:75-79.
Ophir E et al (2009) Cognitive control in media multitaskers. PNAS 106:15583-15587.
Rakic P (2002) Neurogenesis in adult primate neocortex: an evaluation of the evidence. Nat Rev Neurosci 3:65–71.
Richmond LL et al (2011) Working memory training and transfer in older adults. Psychol Aging 26:813-822.
Roure R et al (1999) Imagery quality estimated by autonomic response is correlated to sporting performance enhancement. Physiol Behav 66:63-72.
Rudebeck SR et al (2012) A potential spatial working memory training task to improve both episodic memory and fluid intelligence. Plos One 7: e50431.
Rueda MR et al (2012) Enhanced efficiency of the executive attention network after training in preschool children: Immediate and after two months effects. Dev Cogn Neurosci 2 Suppl 1:S192-204.
Salminen T et al (2012) On the impacts of working memory training on executive funcitioning. Front Hum Neurosci 6:166.
Scholz J et al (2009) Training induces changes in white-matter architecture. Nat Neurosci 12:1370–1371.
Schwartz MW et al (1996) Identification of targets of leptin action in rat hypothalamus. J Clin Invest 98:1101–1106.
Schwartz MW, Porte D Jr (2005) Diabetes, obesity, and the brain. Science 307:375-379.
Seymour B, McClure SM (2008) Anchors, scales and the relative coding of value in the brain. Curr Op Neurobiol 18:173–178.
Smith GE et al (2009) A cognitive training program based on principles of brain plasticity: Results from the Improvement in Memory with Plasticity-based Adaptive Cognitive Training (IMPACT) study. J Am Geriatr Soc 57: 594-603.
Snel J, Lorist MM (2011) Effects of caffeine on sleep and cognition. Prog Brain Res Progress in Brain Res 190:105–117.
Spicer J et al (2007) Sensitivity of the Nucleus Accumbens to Violations in Expectation of Reward. Neuroimage 34:455–461.
Stenberg R (2008) Increasing fluid intelligence is possible after all. PNAS 105(19): 6791-6792.
Stephenson CL, Halpern DF (2013) Improved matrix reasoning is limited to training on tasks with a visuospatial component. Intelligence 41:341-357.
Tang Y-Y et al (2007) Short-term meditation training improves attention and self-regulation. PNAS 104: 17152-17156.
Van der Molen MJ et al (2010) Effectiveness of a computerized working memory training in adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities. J Intellect Disabil Res 54: 433-447.
Vartaniana O, Jobidona ME (2010) Working memory training is associated with lower prefrontal cortex activation in a divergent thinking task. Neuroscience 236:186-194.
Verghese J et al (2003) Leisure activities and the risk of dementia in the elderly. N Engl J Med. 348:2508-2516.
Von Bastian CC, Oberauer K (2013) Distinct transfer effects of training different facets of working memory capacity. J Mem Lang 69:36-58.
Von Bastian CC et al (2013) Effects of working memory training in young and old adults. Mem Cognit 41:611-624.
Wolinsky FD et al (2013) A randomized controlled trial of cognitive training using a visual speed of processing intervention in middle aged and older adults. PLoS One 8:e61624.
Woollett K, Maguire EA (2011) Acquiring "the Knowledge" of London's layout drives structural brain changes. Curr Biol 21:2109-2114.
Wren AM et al (2001) Ghrelin enhances appetite and increases food intake in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:5992.10.1210/jc.86.12.5992
Yeo RA et al (2011) Alzheimer’s disease and intelligence. Current Alzheimer’s Research 8:345-353.
Zeki S et al (1991) A direct demonstration of functional specialization in the human visual cortex. J Neurosci 11:641– 649.